Roman Achievements
The Art and Science of the Ancient Roman Empire

Roman architecture

The Roman Empire is perhaps the most prominent example of a society in which the arts and sciences flourished. The period of Roman history after the Republic known as the Imperial Era witnessed an explosion of artistic and technological innovation. Considering that this was a time when most other societies were fighting for survival, it is remarkable how much civilization thrived in ancient Rome.

The architecture, sculptures, paintings, books, and amphitheatres created by Romans are still studied today with great interest. The only problem is that very little documentation remains from this period to explain the whys and hows behind all these amazing creations.

Nevertheless, there are many historians who have endeavoured to understand what led to such an impressive burst of creativity in architecture and other areas of artistry in the early Roman Empire.

The Rise of the Roman Empire

For a society to create great art and beauty, it must first have order. The Roman Empire was at its most glorious during the early Empire when it was stabilised and experienced almost no wars. This allowed people to focus on the arts and not have to worry about defending the Empire.

This period also saw a shift in culture as the Roman society absorbed much from the conquered civilizations they had come into contact with. For example, the Romans adopted the architectural style of the Greeks and the written language of the Etruscans.

The Romans were excellent learners. They were open to new ideas and incorporated them into their own culture. Although the Roman Empire did not have a monopoly on art and science, what it did have was a great deal of stability. This allowed it to focus on innovation and creativity instead of war and conquest.

Advancement in Architecture and Construction

The architecture of the Roman Empire was greatly influenced by the architectural style of the Etruscans, a people who lived in Italy before the Romans. During the Imperial Era, there was a general trend towards the construction of more elaborate buildings.

One of the most impressive architectural feats of the Roman Empire is the Colosseum. This was a giant sporting arena that could seat 50,000 people. It was built between 70 and 80 AD by the emperor Vespasian for public entertainment such as gladiator fights, public executions, and animal hunts.

However, it was also used for hosting theatre productions, concerts, religious events such as the Roman festival of the Lupercalia, and even for parades.

Advancement in Art and Sculpture

Artistic Innovation is best seen in the sculptures of the early Roman Empire. Many of these sculptures were depictions of rulers and important people. In the age before photography, these sculptures were the only way for people to see these dignitaries. There are many sculptures from this period that are so lifelike and detailed that it is easy to forget that they are not actual photographs!

Some of the most famous sculptures from the early Roman Empire are the Augustus of Primaporta, the Great Torso from the House of the Vettii, and the Laocoön and His Sons. These sculptures are important not only for their aesthetic appeal but also because they give us insight into the mindset of Roman society. For example, the Augustus of Primaporta statue depicts the emperor as a man of great physical beauty with his hair flowing in the wind. Given that most people in the Roman Empire were rough looking farmers, the artistic depiction of Augustus was likely intended to inspire awe and admiration in his subjects.

Advancement in Theatre, Music, and Dance

The earliest surviving plays were written during the early period of the Roman Empire. We don’t know much about the lives of the people who wrote these plays but we do have a sense of what they were like.

Many of the plays from the early Roman Empire were comedies that contained lots of sexual innuendo and satire.

The Romans were very much influenced by the Greek Theatre and the Theatre of Dionysus in particular. The Greek Theatre was used to present both comedies and tragedies. During the Imperial Era, a type of dance known as pantomime was introduced in the Roman Theatre. Pantomime is a type of dance that involves the use of gestures and body language to convey a story. It is most often used by mimes and clowns. The Romans also borrowed the Greek Lyre and other string instruments to play music for the theatre. These instruments were played during the interludes between acts of the play.

Advancement in Technology and Engineering

The Romans excelled in engineering and technology during the early Roman Empire. They built some of the most impressive structures in history. The most famous of these is the Pantheon, a huge building that is still standing today. The fact that this building has survived for over 1800 years is a testimony to the advanced construction techniques and materials that the Romans used.

The Romans were skilled at using concrete as a building material. They also made great use of the arch, a design feature that is essential to building with concrete. Other examples of advanced Roman architecture and engineering include the Roman aqueducts, and the roads built by the Romans. Many roads built by the Romans are still in use today and this is a testament to the durability of Roman construction given that these roads have been used for over two millennia.

The Romans made significant improvements to the water wheels used in the water-powered mills. They also used the water wheel as the power source for their elaborate aqueduct systems.


The Roman Empire is perhaps one of the most prominent examples of a society in which the arts and sciences flourished. During the Imperial Era, the boundaries of the Roman Republic were expanded to cover most of the civilized world, to include such regions as North Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and even parts of Asia. This resulted in an increased interTest in learning about other civilizations and their ways of life. This period of history is referred to as the Pax Romana (Roman peace). During this time, there was minimal conflict between the various regions of the Roman Empire. This meant that the exchange of ideas was facilitated, and the movement of people was relatively easy. The result was an explosion in the creativity of the people living in the Roman Empire. The architecture, sculptures, paintings, books, and amphitheatres created by Romans are still studied today with great interest.

In short, Roman society advanced so far in a short period that the discoveries and innovations of that time remain relevant today.